Soft Sandstone Bolting Test Results

Full Report

Tension Tests (Pullout)

Yield Load Criteria Ultimate Load Criteria Anchor Installation
Anchor
Manufacturer
Anchor-Description
{Type:(leg width x depth x diameter x material (glue type)}
#
Tests
Overall
Failure
Mode
Arithmetic
Mean
(kN)
Max.
Load
(kN)
Min.
Load
(kN)
Sigma
Standard
Deviation
(kN)
Mean
-3 Sigma
(kN)
Arithmetic
Mean
(kN)
Max. Load
(kN)
Min.
Load
(kN)
Standard
Deviation
(kN)
Mean
-3 Sigma
(kN)
Bolt
Diam.
(mm)
Enbed
Depth
(mm)
Ubolt
Spacing
(mm)
Hole Diam.
(mm)
n/a (S1) Glue-In Stud: 100mmxM10 galvanized, carbon steel, threaded rod (Upat ampoule) 3 metal 51.5 52.9 50.9 1.1 48.1 51.5 52.9 50.9 1.1 48.1 10 100 n/a 12
n/a (S2)  Glue-In Stud: 100mmxM10 galvanized, carbon steel, cut threads (Hilti HIT-HY 150) 4 bond 7.3 11.5 4.6 3.0 0.0 7.3 11.5 4.6 3.0 0.0 10 100 n/a 12
n/a (S3)  Glue-In Stud: 100mm xM8 galvanized, carbon steel, cut threads  (Hilti HIT-HY 150) 2 bond 14.9 20.3 9.5 n/a n/a 17.9 20.3 15.4 n/a n/a 8 100 n/a 10
Hilti (M1) Hilti Mech Exp “HSA-KA”: 90mmxM10 galvanized 3 pulling 16.4 21.3 7.5 7.7 0.0 31.8 35.1 25.3 5.7 14.8 10 90 n/a 10
Test Variant (U1) U-Bolt: 50x120xM8 316 galvananized, carbon steel, threaded rod (Hilti HIT-HY 150) 4 varied 20.3 33.2 9.5 9.9 0.0 27.0 34.1 21.3 5.4 10.9 8 120 50 10
Davies (U2) U-Bolt: 50x60xM8 316 stainless, rolled threads (Hilti HIT-HY 150) 6 rock 15.4 21.3 9.5 4.3 2.5 17.9 21.3 13.5 3.5 7.4 8 60 50 10
Test Variant (U3) U-Bolt: 80x60mmxM10 galvanized, carbon steel, cut threads (Hilti HIT-HY 150) 4 bond 12.0 17.4 3.6 6.1 0.0 18.9 25.3 7.5 7.9 0.0 10 60 80 10
SA Railways (U4) U-Bolt: 37x50mmxM12 galvanized, carbon steel, cut threads (Epidermix) 4 rock 13.9 23.3 5.6 8.7 0.0 14.4 25.3 5.6 9.4 0.0 12 50 37 12
Robot hardware (U5) U-Bolt: 37x37mmxM10 chromed, carbon steel, cut threads (Hilti HIT-HY 150) 3 bond 6.9 9.5 3.6 3.0 0.0 8.2 11.5 5.6 3.0 0.0 8 30 60 10
Fergusson (U6) U-Bolt: 37x60x8mm cut grooves stainless steel (Epidermix) 1 bond 11.0 n/a n/a n/a n/a 11.0 n/a n/a n/a n/a 8 100 37 8
  Total Bolts:  34                              

 

Shear Tests

Yield Load Criteria Ultimate Load Criteria Anchor Installation
Anchor
Manufacturer
Anchor-Description
{Type:(leg width x depth x diameter x material (glue type)}
#
Tests
Overall
Failure
Mode
Arithmetic
Mean
(kN)
Max.
Load
(kN)
Min.
Load
(kN)
Sigma
Standard
Deviation
(kN)
Mean
-3 Sigma
(kN)
Arithmetic
Mean
(kN)
Max. Load
(kN)
Min.
Load
(kN)
Standard
Deviation
(kN)
Mean
-3 Sigma
(kN)
Bolt
Diam.
(mm)
Enbed
Depth
(mm)
Ubolt
Spacing
(mm)
Hole Diam.
(mm)
Test Variant (U1) U-Bolt: 50x120xM8  galvanized, carbon steel, threaded rod (Hilti HIT-HY 150) 2 bending 10.5 11.5 9.5 n/a n/a 12.5 15.4 9.5 n/a n/a 8 120 50 10
Davies *1 (U2) U-Bolt: 50x60xM8 316 stainless, rolled threads (Hilti HIT-HY 150) 4 bending 15.9 17.4 15.4 1.0 13.0 45.3 n/a n/a 3.6 34.6 8 60 50 10
SA Railways (U4) U-Bolt: 37x50mmxM12 galvanized, carbon steel, cut threads (Epidermix) 2 rock 23.3 29.2 17.4 n/a n/a 23.3 29.2 17.4 n/a n/a 12 50 37 12
SA Railways (U8) U-Bolt: 37x37mmx12mm galvanized (Epidermix) 1 bond 19.4 n/a n/a n/a n/a 25.3 n/a n/a n/a n/a 9 35 37 10
n/a (S2) Glue-In Stud: 100mmxM10 galvanized (Hilti HIT-HY 150) 1 hanger 22.3 n/a n/a n/a n/a 40.1 n/a n/a n/a n/a 10 100 n/a 12
  Total Bolts:  10                              

In addition, specifying a Safe Working Load would involve dividing the 3-Sigma Yield Load by a Factor of Safety. Only one of the tested anchors are strong enough to provide a reasonable Safe Working Load: the S1 Glue-In Stud.

Upat Ampoule – UKA 3
Hilti HIT-HY 150 installed with Hilti Injection gun
Epidermix 372
n/a = not enough tests to compute

S = Stud
M = Mechanical expansion
U = U-Bolt

*1 shear failure results from Davies data